Frequently Asked Questions

Compensating the reactive energy

What is reactive energy?
Energy consumption is characterized by two sizes: active energy and reactive energy. Active energy is consumed for useful purposes, with useful effects (examples: electric motors, heating, lighting, etc.). Reactive energy only circulates between the consumer and the energy supplier and is not consumed effectively.
Why does reactive energy appear?
Aparitia ei se datoreaza elementelor fizice din structura unui consumator: in principal bobine si condensatoare. Acestea decaleaza in timp curentul fata de tensiune, astfel incat puterea electrica obtinuta din punct de vedere matematic ca produs intre tensiune si curent se poate descompune in doua componente: putere activa si putere reactiva. Puterea reactiva va circula permanent intre consumator si furnizor, intre bobine si condensatoare. Fiindca puterea reactiva nu se consuma, ea reprezinta o marime alternativa cu valoarea medie nula. Teoretic este considerata o marime conventionala.
If reactive energy is a conventional size, why do I pay it?
Pentru ca circulatia ei intre furnizor si consumator se face prin retele electrice. Datorita efectului Joule-Lentz de disipare a caldurii la trecerea unui curent printr-un conductor, transportul energiei electrice va fi afectat de pierderi (pierderi care vor fi cu atat mai mari cu cat componenta de curent reactiv va fi mai mare, deci cu cat energia reactiva circulata va fi mai mare). Aceste pierderi de energie prin incalzirea conductoarelor se deduc de catre furnizorul de energie electrica si prin facturarea energiei reactive.
What can I do to stop paying for reactive energy?
Pot sa limitez distanta intre care se face circularea energiei reactive, in sensul ca in loc sa iau energie reactiva din reteaua electrica, adica de la operatorul de distributie, pot sa montez baterii de condensatoare la delimitarea dintre consumator si operator, astfel incat sa realizez circulatia energiei reactive intre condensatoare si consumatorii mei, in speta bobine.
How does my compensation equipment influence my own consumers? Will the engines burn?
Nicidecum. Circulatia de energie reactiva va fi aceeasi intre consumator (motoarele mele, care de fapt sunt bobine) si condensatoarele pe care le montez la delimitarea dintre mine si operatorul de distributie. De fapt, eu elimin circulatia prin retelele electrice ale operatorului de distributie, astfel incat nu-i mai provoc pierderi de energie datorate circulatiei energiei reactive. Astfel, el nu imi mai factureaza energie reactiva.
Nu imi creste consumul de energie activa daca instalez baterii de condensatoare?
The condense batteries are reactive energy generators. They have low energy consumption, around 2W per kVAr produced. The batteries are designed to correct the power factor and compensate the inductive reactive energy.

Power factor compensation can be done with either fixed or automated systems. Fixed-value capacitors use one or more capacitors to achieve a certain level of compensation.

The order can be:

  • manual: through automatic breaker or load separator;
  • semi-automatic: via contactor;
  • by direct connection to a switching electrical device.

These capacitors are setted up:

  • la bornele receptorilor inductivi (motoare ii transformatoare);
  • pe barele de distributie de la care se alimenteaza motoare mici sau consumatori inductivi si pentru care compensarea individuala ar fi prea costisitoare;
  • in cazurile in care nivelul sarcinii este in general constant.

Bateriile de condensatoare automate efectueaza controlul automat al compensarii, mentinand in niste limite stranse valoarea factorului de putere. Un astfel de echipament se monteaza in locurile in care se produc variatii mari de puteri active si/sau reactive.

Elementele principale ale unei baterii de condensatoare sunt:

  1. Regulator electronic pentru factorul de putere
  2. Condensatoare
  3. Contactoare pentru comutarea treptelor de condensatoare
  4. Rezistente de descarcare
  5. Sigurante fuzibile
Is it legal to install reactive energy compensation equipment?
Of course, as long as these equipment are fitted by qualified staff and their execution reflects a quality standard.
Does the energy supplier agree to install reactive energy compensation equipment?
In the short term, the supplier no longer charges the consumer for the reactive energy invoiced. However, in the long term, the supplier has to win from the fact that a consumer decides to compensate the reactive energy because the energy losses in electrical networks are reduced. The billing cost of reactive energy does not include commercial addition, such as active energy. This important issue is regulated by the National Regulatory Authority for Energy.
Do I have problems with the Environment Ministry if I install reactive energy compensation equipment?
You will not have any problems because the used condensers are environmentally friendly, certified by the manufacturer and guaranteed by us.

Variable speed drives

What is a frequency converter?
A frequency converter (Variable Speed Drive) is an equipment used in electromechanical systems to control the rotation speed, torque, frequency and voltage at the input of an AC asynchronous motor.
What are the advantages of implementing variable speed applications?
The main advantages are electrical (reduced energy consumption at lower speed of the motor, power factor correction, speed adjusted to the process, reduced start-up current) and mechanical (smooth start, reduced mechanical shocks in the transmission gears).
What is a PLC and what it is used for?
The PLC (Programmable Logic Controller or programmable automaton) is an equipment offering a large range of possibilities to monitor and control several process parameters, to define functions and relations between these parameters, etc., from simple control and interlocking applications to complex motion control applications.

Maintenance management

What is maintenance management?
Maintenance management is a number of measures and actions which enable the equipment to be restored to a pre-set condition (in operating parameters) or able to provide a certain service and in the same time to minimize the maintenance costs.
In what type of industries this system can be implemented?
The production monitoring system can be implemented in any plant or enterprise with large-scale production, while the maintenance management system can be implemented in any institution where there is an equipment requiring periodical maintenance.
Can these systems be also implemented on existing equipment?
Yes, they can be implemented on a virtually any production equipment.

Energy Monitoring System

What is a SCADA system?
SCADA is an acronym for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition and describes any application which collects process data with the purpose to control, supervise and report the respective process data.
What is a telemetering system?
It is a direct interface with the load dispatcher, which makes possible the acquisition of energy parameters, displaying them in real time, archiving and reporting them in graphic and tabular format.
How can telemetering system help us?
A telemetering system monitors in real time the parameter metering points, displays in real time the block diagram of the consumers network, archives the parameters history, reports by curve diagrams or tables every single metering point and reacts to alarm thresholds displaying explicit messages.
What is energy efficiency?
The energy efficiency is defined as a plan of feasible measures and actions implemented in a company with the purpose to improve and monitor the performance of the respective company.